Advertisements How important are the laws of thermodynamics? A good many times I have been present at gatherings of people who, by the standards of the traditional culture, are thought highly educated and who have with considerable gusto been expressing their incredulity at the illiteracy of scientists. Once or twice I have been provoked and have asked the company how many of them could describe the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The response was cold: Yet I was asking something which is the scientific equivalent of: Thermodynamics is not based on studying one particle at a time. This infographic describes the laws in a different — but equivalent — way. But for the sake of completeness, we include it: Thermal energy will flow from the body at a higher temperature, to the one at a lower temperature, until thermal equilibrium between the two bodies is reached. If heat is lost from one system, that heat goes someplace else.
The Fossil Record
Email Delivery is a link to a DropBox Download and is usually emailed within 24 hours of placing your order through PayPal. Just email me for another download! Note from a Teacher:
Radiometric dating is particularly useful in dating igneous and metamorphic rock.. Because of geologic events such as plate tectonics and volcanism, suitable material for radiometric dating, such as volcanic tuff, solidified lava, and igneous intrusions have been found as layers on, in, and cut through layers of sedimentary rock.
Carbon , Radiometric Dating and Index Fossils Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50, years old. This technique is widely used on recent artifacts, but educators and students alike should note that this technique will not work on older fossils like those of the dinosaurs alleged to be millions of years old. This technique is not restricted to bones; it can also be used on cloth, wood and plant fibers.
Carbon dating has been used successfully on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Minoan ruins and tombs of the pharaohs among other things. Carbon is a radioactive isotope of carbon. The half-life of carbon is approximately 5, years. The short half-life of carbon means it cannot be used to date fossils that are allegedly extremely old, e. The question should be whether or not carbon can be used to date any artifacts at all?
The answer is not simple. There are a few categories of artifacts that can be dated using carbon ; however, they cannot be more than 50, years old. Carbon cannot be used to date biological artifacts of organisms that did not get their carbon dioxide from the air. This rules out carbon dating for most aquatic organisms, because they often obtain at least some of their carbon from dissolved carbonate rock. The age of the carbon in the rock is different from that of the carbon in the air and makes carbon dating data for those organisms inaccurate under the assumptions normally used for carbon dating.
Walter Brown’s Hydroplate Model Doesn’t Hold Water
Introduction Evolution itself is simply the process of change over time. When applied to biology, evolution generally refers to changes in life forms over time. The Theory of Biological Evolution is most often associated with Charles Darwin, because it was Charles Darwin that proposed the mechanism of natural selection and accompanied that proposition with a large volume of empirical data providing evidence for biological evolution.
Darwin was not, however, the first person to propose an evolutionary explanation for the diversity of life on earth.
Earth and Beyond – An Introduction to Earth-Space Science Lab Manual EXERCISE 7: HISTORICAL GEOLOGY AND FOSSILS One of the most fundamental techniques in geology is dating rocks and putting geologic events in their proper sequence.
Room , Valley Life Sciences Building University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, California, USA Coevolution between phytophagous insect antagonists and Carboniferous, Permian, and Triassic seed plant hosts at the level of their respective developmental tool kits with focus on selective forces that drive the logic of transcriptional regulation is proposed in the following essay to explain the origin and evolution of flowering plants and certain Holometabola.
I discuss potential coevolution of insect and seed plant helix-turn-helix proteins, specifically Engraled and Leafy enzymes that bind to cis-regulatory promoters controlling downstream expression of genes determining paedomorphic insect body patterns and plant cone and floral organ development. The picture of the rock slab on the left is of an indeterminate pentamerous fossil rosid flower Celastrales, Rosanae collected by Professor David L. The image was captured in while the author was visiting Indiana University.
Biologists have been encouraged to think ” The three essays on the succeeding web pages are written from this research perspective. Were insect and shrub coevolutionary compartments of the late Paleozoic hypoxic icehouse and later hot house, venues of the first angiosperms? This question among others is explored in this first of three essays on the origin of angiosperms. Certain aspects of coevolution of Mesozoic arthropods and seed plants that have a bearing on the origin and diversity of angiosperms are reviewed by Takhtajan , Raven , Thien et al.
Long-branch attraction LBA continues to cloud molecular-phylogenetic studies of seed plants, including angiosperms Lipeng Zeng et al. Sophisticated Bayesian analyses conducted by C. Do unsolved Ceratophyllales such as extant species of Ceratophyllum represent living descendents of a long branch from the Permo-carboniferous population of Sandrewia texana Vojnovskyales? The diagram on the right is redrawn from Figure 4 on page of D.
Bethany Baptist Church – Hahira, Georgia
Kuban last revised Aug. I use this format to avoid webbot spamming Fig. Brown’s website and book showing what he calls the “Rupture Phase of the Flood” Introduction Walter Brown, a young-earth creationist and retired mechanical engineer, has developed a “Flood model”1 which he believes accounts for virtually all geologic evidence on earth, as well as a variety of astronomical phenomena.
Relative Dating Activity Worksheet Answers. 9/30/ 0 Comments The geologic events of tilting. Relative Dating Worksheet. Base your answers to questions 6 through 9 on the cross section below. Relative Dating Lab Author: Pat. Relative rock layers Rocks and Ice Ages. This interactive asks you to use your knowledge of relative dating.
Geologic Timing Is Everything! Geologic Timing is Everything! Introduction The words slide off the tongue—Earth was formed from a cloud of hot gas and dust 4. But how long is that? One of the most difficult things for the human brain to comprehend is the scope of geologic time because it is impossible to visualize the magnitude of numbers like a million or billion. By the way, the suitcase would have to measure 2 ft X 5 ft X 4 ft, about the size of a refrigerator.
Wikipedia Images Sediments are continually deposited by streams and rivers into both large and small bodies of water. The science of examining and analyzing layers of sediment and sedimentary rock is called stratigraphy a branch of geology which treats the formation, composition, sequence and correlation of the layered rocks as parts of the Earth’s crust.
In almost all cases, the layer on the top of a series of strata is the youngest and the ones underneath are progressively older. So, geologists can establish the relative age of the layers by inspection. But how can we determine exactly how long ago each layer was deposited?
What is the difference between relative dating and absolute dating
What about the fact that the “simple” organisms are buried in the lower levels and the more “complicated” ones are buried in the higher levels? Doesn’t this fact support the notion that simple organisms evolved into more and more complex organisms over time, with the more complex organisms buried and fossilized above the earlier and simpler life forms? Certainly this seems like a very logical assumption.
But, things just aren’t that easy. There are a number of potential problems with this interpretation of the fossil record.
Earth Boiled, Steamed and Roasted Another serious problem with Brown’s model is the immense heat that would be generated during the proposed cataclysmic eruptions (Castagnoli, ; Morton, ), which would have literally boiled the oceans and steamed to death all .
Who made the Kota Tampan tools and when? Her extensive work at a number of sites in the Lenggong Valley suggests that a local pebble-tool culture may have existed from the days of that great Toba volcanic eruption right up until 7, or even only 4, years ago. If that is so, it may provide the answer to one of the most nagging questions about the unifacial oval pebble tools: On the face of it, these are by no stretch of the imagination sophisticated tools. Better-looking tools were made long before in Africa and Europe by archaic humans, so why should anyone think that the unifacial pebbles encased in volcanic ash had been made by modern humans living at the time of Toba?
For a start, the dates for most of the pebble tools found in the Lenggong Valley are too recent for them to have been made by anyone else. Second, no pre-modern humans have ever been found in the Malay Peninsula, let alone in the Lenggong Valley. Surrounded by the same class of pebble tools, this complete skeleton of a modern human was described by experts as having Australo-Melanesian characteristics.
He was about 10, years old. This clear recent association of pebble tools with modern humans undermines the argument that the Kota Tampan pebble tools were too crude to be the work of moderns. The same locality also provides a continuity link with the older tools, which Zuraina argues is supported by technical comparisons. So, for the moment at least, Perak Man is the best local evidence that the older pebble tools encased in ash were made by the same modern human species.
G Lab 6 Geologic Time
The first two-thirds of this essay deals with the rock formations of the Grand Canyon — what they are, and how and when they formed. This should be educational and understandable to readers without a science background. This essay is long. The low rainfall in the region reduces vegetative cover, so the colorful rock layers remain exposed to view. This deep gash in the earth provides a window into the geological past. Nearly all geologists understand these layers to have been deposited over the course of hundreds of millions of years.
Have continued study guide answers tent and geologic events lab. Guide, they are to answer key to learn about relative dating the. You have a getting into the key questions 1 characteristics of fossil record geologists, organisms may become widely accepted.
The way it really is: Even the way dates are reported e. However, although we can measure many things about a rock, we cannot directly measure its age. For example, we can measure its mass, its volume, its colour, the minerals in it, their size and the way they are arranged. We can crush the rock and measure its chemical composition and the radioactive elements it contains. But we do not have an instrument that directly measures age. Before we can calculate the age of a rock from its measured chemical composition, we must assume what radioactive elements were in the rock when it formed.
It may be surprising to learn that evolutionary geologists themselves will not accept a radiometric date unless they think it is correct—i. It is one thing to calculate a date. It is another thing to understand what it means. Field relationships A geologist works out the relative age of a rock by carefully studying where the rock is found in the field.
The field relationships, as they are called, are of primary importance and all radiometric dates are evaluated against them. For example, a geologist may examine a cutting where the rocks appear as shown in Figure 1. Here he can see that some curved sedimentary rocks have been cut vertically by a sheet of volcanic rock called a dyke.
Geology with Terry J. Boroughs: Geologic Dating Lab.
High School Statutory Authority: Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Chemistry or concurrent enrollment in Chemistry. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or In Aquatic Science, students study the interactions of biotic and abiotic components in aquatic environments, including impacts on aquatic systems.
The geologic time scale was developed after scientists observed changes in the fossils going from oldest to youngest sedimentary rocks. They used relative dating to divide Earth’s past in several chunks of time when similar organisms were on Earth.
When Binky discovers that he’s allergic to peanuts, he has so many questions: Will he be forced to live without Chinese food? Will he ever again be able to eat with his friends? And most importantly, will his Mom ever calm down? Binky learns that the best way not to go nuts is to be well informed and to understand his allergy. Much to his horror, Brain gets a “B-” on a test. That’s only one grade above a C!
Course Descriptions | College Catalog | Lake Forest College
Consider also the most popular explanation offered for the photo right , that a concretion formed around an s-era hammer as minerals precipitated out of the surrounding limestone. From Adam until Real Science Radio , in only generations! Another paper, in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology Eugenie Scott ‘s own field on High mitochondrial mutation rates , shows that one mitochondrial DNA mutation occurs every other generation, which, as creationists point out , indicates that mtEve would have lived about generations ago.
That’s not so old! As our List of Not So Old Things this web page reveals, by a kneejerk reaction evolutionary scientists assign ages of tens or hundreds of thousands of years or at least just long enough to contradict Moses’ chronology in Genesis.
Age of the earth evidences for a young age of the earth and the universe. by Don Batten. Published: 4 June , last updated 13 September There are many categories of evidence for the age of the earth and the cosmos that indicate they are much younger than is generally asserted today.
The three main creationist views within modern Christianity are young earth creationism, old earth creationism, and evolutionary creationism. These approaches vary in how much they accept the results of modern science. Young earth YE creationism is perhaps the most controversial position. In its modern Flood Geology form, YE creationism teaches that the earth and its life-forms were created about years ago, and that most sedimentary rock layers were deposited in a single, year-long global Flood.
It holds that the scientific community is broadly mistaken in its understanding of geology, astronomy and biology. Science educators in the U. Evangelical Christians are dismayed at how YE creationism is a barrier keeping educated people from considering the gospel. Blogger Rebecca Trotter wrote: Creationism breeds lies and liars. No one sees Christians denying the reality of creation and is inspired to follow God. It puts God on our timeline and not His own.
Having to wait on God makes much more sense when you consider that God normally works over the course of billions of years and not minutes and hours.